Although they once ranged widely throughout North and South America, cougars were largely wiped out from the eastern portion of the United States and Canada by European settlers in the 1700s. We recommend caution and notifying state and local wildlife officials when a cougar is observed. Why did eastern cougar populations become extinct? The cougar’s coloration varies depending on where it lives and the time of season, but most often it ranges from tawny to grayish brown on its back and flanks, with a white chest, belly and throat. However because there have been no Eastern Cougars found in modern times it has become difficult to actually prove they are a distinct subspecies. There is no evidence that a breeding population of cougars occurs in the eastern United States or eastern Canada other than those in Florida (Florida panther). Given human densities in eastern North America, the return of a top-level predator such as the cougar will depend on public awareness and acceptance. Any change in classification must undergo a formal rulemaking process, including the opportunity for public comment. 14. The North American Cougar has a habitat that ranges from Canada to northern Mexico. The eastern cougar range extended from Maine south to Georgia, west into eastern Missouri and eastern Illinois, and north to Michigan and Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick, anada. What was the historical range of the eastern cougar? The U.S. Why are cougars occurring with increasing frequency in the Midwest? This range expansion is known as stepping-stone dispersion, and it’s thought that the Midwest will be home to a stable cougar population within the next 25 years as a result. One male cougar … Fish and Wildlife Service concludes eastern cougar extinct, Questions and answers about the conclusion of the review, An audio interview with biologist Mark McCollough on the cougar review, Initiation of Five-Year Review (Federal Register notice). The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae.It is native to the Americas.Its range spans from the Canadian Yukon to the southern Andes in South America, and is the most widespread of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere.It is an adaptable, generalist species, occurring in most American habitat types. Three main cougar populations exist in the Midwest centered around The Black Hills in South Dakota, however, cougars are venturing far outside of this range. Service biologists will prepare a proposal to remove the eastern cougar from the endangered species list. How many cougars are kept as pets? Download a printable version of this page . Adult male cougars’ home ranges will often overlap those of three or four females. These are different names for cougars. They require large contiguous areas with adequate large prey to meet their social, reproductive and energy needs. Some people estimate that more than 1,000 cougars are held in private captivity in the eastern United States. It is unknown at this time whether cougars will continue to expand their range eastward. Has genetic analysis shown significant differences among the approximately 15 subspecies of cougar in North America? Cougars used to roam the entirety of North America, making the mountain ranges, woodland forests, and river corridors from coast to coast their homes. 2. Can private individuals or organizations reintroduce cougars to the eastern states? The eastern cougar range extended from Maine south to Georgia, west into eastern Missouri and eastern Illinois, and north to Michigan and Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick, anada. Cougars have long, slender bodies and small, broad, round heads. Removal from Endangered Species List But, a complete subspecies analysis, including consideration of morphology, unique ecological settings and habitats, and geographic distinctiveness between populations, has not been conducted. The North American cougar (Puma concolor couguar) is a cougar subspecies in North America.It was once common in eastern North America, and is still prevalent in the western half of the continent. Cougars, also known as mountain lions, pumas and panthers, have … 18. There have been many confirmed cougar sightings since 2008, including two illegal harvests in the Upper Peninsula. Next to the jaguar, it is the largest North American cat. If you have such information, please submit it to The Cougar Network. Next to the jaguar, it is the largest North American cat. Like any wild carnivore, cougars can attack and kill other animals and humans. Will the Service consider reintroducing other cougar subspecies to the eastern states? Report Cougar Sighting Online After careful examination, the biologists concluded all reported cougars were animals that escaped or were released from captivity or that dispersed from the western United States. It has speed and agility and is a Eastern Cougar North Carolina Wildlife Profiles Range Map Sadly, extinct for many years. cougar"). Puma concolor is historically the widest ranging land mammal in the Western Hemisphere, aside from humans. It’s official: The eastern cougar, that subspecies of the cat also known as puma, mountain lion, painter, and panther, is extinct, according to a new report by the U.S. Cougar populations in most western states have been increasing in recent decades. Dusky patches border the upper lip and the back of the ears while the tip of its tail is black. Service biologists assembled 108 records dating from 1900 to 2010 with a high level of confirmation that the described animals were cougars. Unofficially,in 2011, this long-tailed puma subspecies was considered to be extinct by an evaluationconducted by the U.S. The Eastern Cougar is generally believed to be a distinct sub species much like the Florida panther is a subspecies. 6. Puma concolor is historically the widest ranging land mammal in the Western Hemisphere, aside from humans. While individual animals dispersing from western populations have been documented in a number of Midwest states, some of these animals could be released or escaped pets. Contact your state wildlife agency to find out what laws apply in your state. However, cougars raised in captivity and released to the wild may be poor hunters and/or unafraid of humans. Effective date of delisting is February 22, 2018. Adult male cougars’ home ranges will often overlap those of three or four females. In the United States, cougars inhabit the western region and extend eastward as far as the western edge of the Dakotas, Nebraska, and close to the eastern borders of Colorado and Texas. Fish and Wildlife Service concludes eastern cougar extinct (March 2, 2011), Eastern Puma Five-Year Review (March 2011) (PDF 1.4 MB), Questions and answers about the conclusion of the review (March 2011), An audio interview with biologist Mark McCollough on the cougar review (March 2011), Eastern cougar comments sought (Feb. 28, 2007), Initiation of Five-Year Review (Federal Register notice) (Jan. 29, 2007), Recovery Plan: Eastern Cougar (August 1982), Links to Non-Fish and Wildlife Service Sites, Cooper's Rock Mountain Lion Eastern Cougar Sightings Mountain Lions in New York. The review concludes that the eastern cougar is extinct. Next to the jaguar, it is the largest North American cat. Questions and answers about the proposed delisting (PDF 85 KB) Weights range from 80-225 pounds (36-103 kg), averaging 140 (64 kg). Is it legal to have a cougar as a pet? Evidence of cougars may be documented using The Cougar Network's methodology. 9. Puma. Between the 1790s and 1890s, their range contracted significantly. At the conclusion of a review, the Service can affirm that the species is correctly classified, recommend reclassification of a species (endangered to threatened; threatened to endangered), or recommend removal of the species from the endangered species list. What is the next step now that the five-year review is completed? 11. Mountain lions have been dispersing away from these population areas, and researchers recently mapped all confirmed mountain lion observations from 1990-2008 (LaRue et al. Eastern cougars (mountain lions) do not have a native, self sustaining population in New York State. In 2015, the agency inferred that the animal does notneed to be protected under the Endangered Species Act and decided to de-listit. Males are larger than females. mortalities, cougars shot or caught in traps). It is officially listed as an endangered species by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and receives full protection in Nova Scotia. Thousands of unconfirmed cougar sightings have occurred in West Virginia and other states where the eastern cougar once ranged in recent decades. Even small populations of cougars, such as those in Florida and North and South Dakota, leave substantial physical evidence (tracks, photographs, scat, hair, genetic samples, road Long extinct eastern cougar to be removed from endangered species list, correcting lingering anomaly (January 22, 2018) (PDF 116 KB) This situation is not unique to Michigan, but has been occurring in many other mid-western and eastern states, as young males disperse from core range in the western United States. D.D. Despite reported sightings across Pennsylvania, including one in Berks County on January 8, and throughout the eastern U.S., the U.S. Weights range from 80-225 pounds (36-103 kg), averaging 140 (64 kg). Eastern Canada once had a population of cougars (also referred to as mountain lions) that inhabited a vast region, stretching from Ontario to the Maritimes. The last confirmed sighting of an Eastern cougar was in 1938, when it is believed that hunters in Maine shot the last one. Though the government states the species is extinct, hundreds of sightings are still reported on a daily basis, particularly after the 2011 sighting of a mountain lion in Greenwich, Conn. Comments can be submitted there through August 17, 2015. The cougar is known by many common names, including puma, mountain lion, catamount, and panther. The timing of these actions will depend on funding and staffing availability. Below are links to cougar facts, our research, and our photo gallery. The last documented cougar specimen taken in eastern North America was trapped in Maine near the Quebec border in 1938. Will the range of cougars continue to expand into eastern North America? The Service has not prepared a formal status review of the eastern cougar since its recovery plan was published in 1982. The Cougar Network focuses on physical evidence of cougar presence in the midwestern and eastern portions of North America to better understand cougar potential as it recolonizes these regions. Cougar have the largest range of any New World cat, larger than any other terrestrial mammal in the western hemisphere. Cougars adapt to a wide range of habitats at sea level to the ones at an elevation of around 10,000 to 15,000 feet. 12. This range expansion is known as stepping-stone dispersion, and it’s thought that the Midwest will be home to a stable cougar population within the next 25 years as a result. These are a different subspecies than the extinct eastern cougar. At one time, they lived in every Eastern state in a variety of habitats including coastal marshes, mountains and forests. They are adaptable and can live in grasslands, forest, desert, mountainous regions and swamps. When was the status of the eastern cougar last reviewed? This situation is not unique to Michigan, but has been occurring in many other mid-western and eastern states, as young males disperse from core range in the western United States. Long extinct eastern cougar to be removed from endangered species list, correcting lingering anomaly, Updated questions and answers about the delisting, Extinct eastern cougar subspecies proposed for removal from endangered species list, Questions and answers about the proposed delisting, U.S. The last records of eastern cougars are believed to be in Maine (1938) and New Brunswick (1932). Mountain lions are usually light brown, or tawny, but can range from tan to dark gray. Contributed by John Garton, SCWF Board Member Emeritus . The last confirmed sighting of an eastern cougar took place in 1938 in Maine. Cougars have reoccupied their historic breeding range in North and South Dakota and possibly elsewhere. Adult male cougars roam widely, covering a home range of 50 to 150 square miles, depending on the age of the cougar, the time of year, type of terrain, and availability of prey. What would the Service consider proof of the existence of an eastern cougar population? The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires the Service to conduct a review of each protected species every 5 years to ensure the accuracy of its classification. 10. There are likely many places in eastern North America with adequate habitat to support populations of cougars. Length varies from 5-9 feet (150-275 cm); this measurement includes the 26-32 inch (66-82 cm) tail. 2. Weights range from 80-225 pounds (36-103 kg), averaging 140 (64 kg). Panther. Cougars once roamed the entire expanse of the lower forty-eight United States, up into the Canadian Yukon, and south to Chilean Patagonia in South America. 7. Range The cougar occupies the most extensive range of any New World terrestrial mammal, from the Canadian Yukon to the southern tip of South America. Range. Fish and Wildlife Service. Below are links to cougar facts, our research, and our photo gallery. Eastern cougar or eastern puma (Puma concolor couguar) refers to the extirpated population of cougars that live in northeastern North America, which some authorities have considered to be a subspecies. Mountain lion. The map from that publication is shown below, with the current mountain lion range in green and confirmed mountain lion locations as black dots. Fish and Wildlife Service. The cougar (also known as mountain lion, panther, painter, catamount, puma, and other names) was once one of the most widely distributed mammals in the Western Hemisphere. Fish and Wildlife Service evaluation in 2011. No. Each sighting involved cougars that are not native to New York. Following review of the comments, the Service will make a final determination, and that determination will be published in the Federal Register. Although no breeding population of eastern cougar was known in 1982, Service biologists at that time believed it was possible that the eastern cougar still survived in a few remote areas of its historical range. Because adult male cougars have large home ranges that may overlap with those of several females, an adult male may breed with several females in any given year. eastern cougar, which has been on the endangered species list since 1973. Cougars in Washington are capable of breeding at any time of year, although birth pulses have been observed in January and August. The cougar indeed “may be gradually reclaiming some of its former range in the midwestern U.S. and Canada, with 178 confirmed records outside known breeding range in 1990-2008,” states Panthera president Luke Hunter in his 2015 book Wild Cats of the World. They roam from the Yukon in Canada to the extreme southern tip of South America. Fish and Wildlife Service(Service) has completed a review of all available information about the eastern cougar, which has been on the endangered species list since 1973. Cougars once had the greatest distribution of any land mammal in North and South America. They may behave differently from wild cougars. 4. This subspecies includes populations in western Canada, the western United States, Florida, Mexico and Central America, and possibly South America northwest of the Andes Mountains. Today, whitetail deer populations have rebounded over much of the cougar's former range and a few animals have appeared in more eastern states such as Missouri and Arkansas. More common on the western side of North America than the eastern side, they range as far south as southern South America - in fact, wherever their chief prey, deer, is present. For over 80 years, there were no signs of cougars in the Eastern states, so federal wildlife officials declared them an extinct subspecies. FWS–R5–ES–2015–0001. The eastern cougars were unofficially deemed extinct by a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service initiate a review of the eastern cougar, and what is its purpose? Reproduction: Cougars mate throughout June and July. In Canada, the range of the cougar was over much of British Columbia, across southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Québec to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Why did the Service write a recovery plan for the eastern cougar in 1982 when biologists believed the subspecies was extinct? The cougar (Puma concolor, also called mountain lion, panther, and puma) once roamed across most of North America, but human persecution has now almost completely eradicated the species from all areas but the western regions of Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The only eastern U.S. state with a known breeding population is Florida. Cougars are tan or slightly yellow in color, large, and have a long tail. Although young males may sometimes disperse hundreds of miles, female cougars normally do not move far from where they are born. 3. Ghost cat. Ears ar… Western populations of cougar appear stable, and while the cougar has virtually disappeared from eastern Canada, there are signs that it may be moving east and repopulating former ranges. Mountain lions roamed all … There has never been a black mountain lion specimen collected by science, including the thousands of cats that were shot for bounties in the early part of the 20 th century and despite several museums around the world sending collectors with the express purpose of collecting a black mountain lion. LIFE CYCLE. Most of the cougar population may be found in western Canada, but it has been seen across the Prairies, southern Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. According to The Cougar Network, cougars of wild origin have been confirmed from Minnesota and Wisconsin south to Louisiana. The white-tailed deer, the primary prey of the cougar, was nearly extinct in eastern North America by the late 1800s. Of these, 13 recovered; nine animals were removed from the list due to extinction (although some were believed to be extinct when they were placed on the list); and 16 were removed for reasons such as the discovery of new information. The proposal will be published in the Federal Register, and the public will be invited to provide substantive scientific information about eastern cougars. The Service’s recovery plan for the eastern cougar calls for at least three self-sustaining populations in the United States, each with a minimum of 50 breeding adults. Range and Distribution Cougars are known to cover 20 to 25 miles in one night, marking their territories with urine and piles of feces. Our History. Why did the U.S. Report Cougar Sighting Online ; Table of Confirmed Cougar Sightings ; 2020 Confirmed Cougar Sightings ; 2019 Confirmed Cougar Sightings ; General Cougar Questions. If the eastern cougar is removed from the federal endangered species list, the introduction of cougars to the eastern states would fall under the jurisdiction of the states. Range Cougars once roamed the entire expanse of the lower forty-eight United States, up into the Canadian Yukon, and south to Chilean Patagonia in South America. The folded mountains of central Pennsylvania were past peak leaf-peeping but still colorful when the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat 8 satellite passed over on November 9, 2020. Cougar Rewilding Foundation is a 501 (c) (3) non-profit, science-based, volunteer-run conservation organization dedicated to the recovery of cougars (pumas, mountain lions) to all of their former range east of the Rockies. Image from WesternWildlife.org. 5. However, on January 22, the Eastern cougar subspecies was officially declared extinct in the U.S. and removed from the endangered species list by the U.S. The review concludes that the eastern cougar is extinct. 15. Female home ranges are about half that of males and there in considerable overlap in female home ranges. Range. The eastern cougar is known by many names-panther, painter, puma, mountain lion, or carcajou. 1. The many names given the nation's largest cat convey the mystery surrounding this solitary hunter. Recent genetic analysis has raised doubts about the validity of so many subspecies. The Service does not have the authority under the ESA to replace the extinct eastern cougar subspecies by introducing another cougar subspecies. 8. Their thick tail is one of their most distinct features - it can be as long or longer than its body and typically ends in a darker patch of fur. 17. Proposed rule available at regulations.gov under docket no. Catamount. They thrive in habitats across the cold woods of Canada, the rainforests of Brazil, the western country of the United States and the vast grassy plains (pampas) of Argentina. Of the species for which the Service has the lead, 38 plants and animals found in the United States have been removed from the list. Adult male cougars roam widely, covering a home range of 50 to 150 square miles, depending on the age of the cougar, the time of year, type of terrain, and availability of prey. Why did eastern cougar populations become extinct? Sanctuary, Eastern Cougar Fact Sheet (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation), NatureServe (search for "eastern Extinct eastern cougar subspecies proposed for removal from endangered species list (June 16, 2015) Cougars have long, slender bodies and small, broad, round heads. According wildlife researchers, an animal had not been seen in at least 60 years. 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